Your login:

Password:

Stay signed in

Enter your login name or your email address and click on Send reminder to receive a reminder by email.


Welcome Guest

Scarlet-thighed Dacnis

Dacnis venusta Lawrence, 1862

The Scarlet-thighed Dacnis (Dacnis venusta) is a tanager 4¾" long. It is found in Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama. Source: Wikipedia




(0 votes)
Photo powered by flickr.com.


Order:
  Passeriformes
Family:
  Thraupidae
Genus:
  Dacnis

Scientific:
  Dacnis venusta

Citation:
  Lawrence, 1862

Reference:
  Ann.Lyc.Nat.Hist.N.Y. 7 p.464

Protonym:
  Dacnis venusta

Avibase ID:
  223EB3AD052CEC00

Short link:
  https://avibase.ca/223EB3AD

Taxonomic Serial Number:
TSN: 559681

Geographic range:

  • Dacnis venusta venusta: Tropical Costa Rica and w Panama (Chiriquí)
  • Dacnis venusta fuliginata: E Panama (Caribbean slope of Darién) to nw Ecuador
English:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis
Czech:
pitpit červenonohý
German:
Rotschenkelpitpit
Danish:
Sortbuget Sukkerfugl
Spanish:
Dacnis Muslirrojo
Finnish:
säihkykerttulitangara
French:
Dacnis à cuisses rouges
Italian:
Dacne zampescarlatte
Japanese:
momoakahiwamitsudori
Japanese:
モモアカヒワミツドリ
Dutch:
Rooddijpitpit
Norwegian:
Rødleggdaknis
Norwegian Nynorsk:
Raudleggdaknis
Polish:
cukrownik modrolicy
Russian:
Краснобёдрый дакнис
Slovak:
pitpit čiernobruchý
Swedish:
svartbukig daknis
Ukrainian:
Цукрист синьощокий
Chinese:
红腿锥嘴雀


Authorities recognizing this taxonomic concept:

American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (1983):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 35th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 36th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 37th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 38th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 39th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 40th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 41st suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (1998):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 42nd suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 43rd suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 44th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 45th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 46th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 47th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 48th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 49th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 50th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 51st suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 52nd suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 53rd suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 54th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 55th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 56th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 57th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 58th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 59th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 60th suppl.):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts (current):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 01 (August 2013):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 02 (May 2014):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 03 (March 2015):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 04 (Aug 2016):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 05 (Jan 2017):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 06 (Feb 2018):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 00:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 01:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 02:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 03:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 04:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 05 (Jun 2012):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 05.1 (Oct 2012):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 06 (Nov 2013):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 06.1 (Feb 2014):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 07 (Jul 2014):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 08 (Oct 2015):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 09 (Dec 2016):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 09.1 (Jun 2017):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
HBW and BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v2 (Dec 2017):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
HBW and BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v3 (Nov 2018):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Commission internationale pour les noms français des oiseaux (1993, révision 2009):
Dacnis à cuisses rouges ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Commission internationale pour les noms français des oiseaux (1993):
Dacnis à cuisses rouges ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 1st edition:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 3rd edition:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 4th edition:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (as published):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2000 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2001 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2002 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2003 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2004 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2005 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (incl. 2007 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (incl. 2008 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (incl. 2009 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.5 incl. 2010 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.6 incl. 2011 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.7 incl. 2012 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.8 incl. 2013 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.9 incl. 2014 revisions):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements, version 2015:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements, version 2016:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements, version 2017:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements, version 2018:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Clements, version 2019:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 1.50:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 1.52:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 1.53:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 1.54:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 1.55:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 2015:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 2016:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 2017:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 2018:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
eBird version 2019:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 2nd edition:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 2nd edition (incl. ? suppl):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (as published):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 1.2):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 2.1):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 3.1):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 4):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 5):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 6):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 7):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 8):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 4th edition (vol. 1-2):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 4th edition (incl. corrigenda vol.1-2):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World (vol 1-16):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife (Dec 2017):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (31/01/2015):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (03/07/2017):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife (Dec 2018):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.0:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.5:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.6:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.7:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.0:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.3:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.4:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.5:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.6:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.7:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.8:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.9:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.10:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.11:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.3:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.4:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.5:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.3:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.4:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.3:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.4:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.3:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.4:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 7.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 7.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 7.3:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 8.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 8.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 9.1:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 9.2:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Morony, Bock and Farrand:
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
James Lee Peters:
Dacnis venusta [version 1]
James Lee Peters (original):
Dacnis venusta [version 1]
James Lee Peters (2nd edition):
Dacnis venusta [version 1]
Sibley and Monroe (1993):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Sibley and Monroe (1993, including corrections up to 1998):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Sibley and Monroe 2nd edition (1996):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (24/10/2003):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (14/09/2005):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (16/07/2006):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (26/09/2007):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (01/05/2008):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (30/09/2009):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (19/08/2010):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (8/08/2011):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (8/02/2012):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (4/09/2012):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (17/03/2013):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (9/02/2014):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (16/02/2015):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (28/07/2016):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (22/04/2017):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (4/06/2018):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (6/06/2019):
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ( Dacnis venusta) [version 1]
Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource:
Dacnis venusta [version 1]
Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource:
Dacnis venusta [version 1]

Taxonomic status:

Species status: full species

Your sightings

You must be logged in to view your sighting details. To register to myAvibase click here.

Related taxa

Highlight taxa in a checklist (shown in red)

Other synonyms


Catalan: dacnis de cuixes roges
Czech: Pitpit cervenonohý, pitpit červenonohý
Danish: Sortbuget Sukkerfugl
German: Rotschenkelpitpit, Rotschenkel-Pitpit
English: Scarlet thighed Dacnis, Scarlet-thighed Dacnis
English (IOC): Scarlet-thighed Dacnis
Spanish: Dacnis musliescarlata, Dacnis Muslirrojo, Dacnis Negriazul, Mielero celeste y negro, Mielero de Muslos Rojos
Spanish (Colombia): Dacnis azul y negra, Dacnis Negriazul
Spanish (Costa Rica): Mielero celeste y negro
Spanish (Ecuador): Dacnis musliescarlata
Spanish (Spain): Dacnis Muslirrojo
Spanish (HBW): Scarlet-thighed Dacnis
Spanish (Panama): Dacnis Musliescarlata
Finnish: Säihkykerttulitangara
French: Dacnis à cuisses rouges
Italian: Dacne dai calzoni scarlatti, Dacne zampescarlatte
Japanese: momoakahiwamitsudori
Japanese: モモアカヒワミツドリ
Scientific: Dacnis venusta, Dacnis venusta venusta
Lithuanian: Raudonšlaunis daknis
Dutch: Rooddijpitpit, Rooddij-pitpit
Norwegian Nynorsk: Raudleggdaknis
Norwegian: Rødleggdaknis
Polish: cukrownik modrolicy
Russian: Краснобёдрый дакнис
Slovak: pitpit čiernobruchý
Serbian: Crnotrbi daknis
Swedish: Svartbukad daknis, svartbukig daknis
Ukrainian: Цукрист синьощокий
Chinese: 红腿锥嘴雀
Chinese (Traditional): 紅腿錐嘴雀

Avibase has been visited 291,574,204 times since 24 June 2003. © Denis Lepage | Privacy policy