Your login:

Password:

Stay signed in

Enter your login name or your email address and click on Send reminder to receive a reminder by email.


Welcome Guest

Green Honeycreeper

Chlorophanes spiza (Linnaeus, 1758)

The Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) is a small bird in the tanager family. It is found in the tropical New World from southern Mexico south to Brazil, and on Trinidad. It the only member of the genus Chlorophanes. The Purplish Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes purpurascens), a bird from Venezuela known only from the type specimen, is now thought to be an intergeneric hybrid between the Green Honeycreeper and either the Red-legged Honeycreeper or the Blue Dacnis. Source: Wikipedia




(0 votes)
Photo powered by flickr.com.


Order:
  Passeriformes
Family:
  Thraupidae
Genus:
  Chlorophanes

Scientific:
  Chlorophanes spiza

Citation:
  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference:
  Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.188

Protonym:
  Motacilla Spiza

Avibase ID:
  64E4030B8968E3C7

Short link:
  https://avibase.ca/64E4030B

Taxonomic Serial Number:
TSN: 559214

Geographic range:

  • Chlorophanes spiza spiza: E Colombia to Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil; Trinidad
  • Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis: S Mexico (Oaxaca) to Guatemala, Belize and Honduras
  • Chlorophanes spiza argutus: Extreme e Honduras to nw Colombia
  • Chlorophanes spiza exsul: Tropical sw Colombia to w Ecuador and extreme nw Peru
  • Chlorophanes spiza subtropicalis: Andes of Colombia and w Venezuela
  • Chlorophanes spiza caerulescens: SE Colombia to e Ecuador, e Peru and w Bolivia
  • Chlorophanes spiza axillaris: Coastal e Brazil (Pernambuco to Santa Catarina)
  • Show more...
English:
Green Honeycreeper
Czech:
květomil černohlavý
German:
Kappennaschvogel
Danish:
Sorthovedet Honningsuger
Spanish:
Mielerito Verde
Finnish:
turkoosimesitangara
French:
Tangara émeraude
Italian:
Mielero verde
Japanese:
zuguromitsudori
Japanese:
ズグロミツドリ
Dutch:
Groene Suikervogel
Norwegian:
Grønnhonningkryper
Norwegian Nynorsk:
Grønhonningkrypar
Polish:
seledynek
Portuguese:
Sal-verde
Portuguese (Brazil):
Saí-verde
Russian:
Зелёный саи
Slovak:
temtem smaragdový
Swedish:
nektartangara
Ukrainian:
Саї великий
Chinese:
绿旋蜜雀


Authorities recognizing this taxonomic concept:

American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (1983):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 35th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 36th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 37th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 38th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 39th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 40th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 6th edition (incl. 41st suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (1998):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 42nd suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 43rd suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 44th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 45th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 46th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 47th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 48th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 49th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 50th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 51st suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 52nd suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 53rd suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 54th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 55th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 56th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 57th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 58th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 59th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
American Ornithologists' Union 7th edition (incl. 60th suppl.):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts (current):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 01 (August 2013):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 02 (May 2014):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 03 (March 2015):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 04 (Aug 2016):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 05 (Jan 2017):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 06 (Feb 2018):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 00:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 01:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 02:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 03:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 04:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 05 (Jun 2012):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 05.1 (Oct 2012):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 06 (Nov 2013):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 06.1 (Feb 2014):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 07 (Jul 2014):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 08 (Oct 2015):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 09 (Dec 2016):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Birdlife checklist version 09.1 (Jun 2017):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
HBW and BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v2 (Dec 2017):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
HBW and BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v3 (Nov 2018):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Commission internationale pour les noms français des oiseaux (1993, révision 2009):
Guit-guit émeraude ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Commission internationale pour les noms français des oiseaux (1993):
Guit-guit émeraude ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 1st edition:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 3rd edition:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 4th edition:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (as published):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2000 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2001 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2002 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2003 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2004 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2005 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (incl. 2007 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (incl. 2008 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (incl. 2009 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.5 incl. 2010 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.6 incl. 2011 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.7 incl. 2012 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.8 incl. 2013 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements 6th edition (version 6.9 incl. 2014 revisions):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements, version 2015:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements, version 2016:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements, version 2017:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements, version 2018:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Clements, version 2019:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 1.50:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 1.52:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 1.53:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 1.54:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 1.55:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 2015:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 2016:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 2017:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 2018:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
eBird version 2019:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 2nd edition:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 2nd edition (incl. ? suppl):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (as published):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 1.2):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 2.1):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 3.1):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 4):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 5):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 6):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 7):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. corrigenda 8):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 4th edition (vol. 1-2):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 4th edition (incl. corrigenda vol.1-2):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World (vol 1-16):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife (Dec 2017):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (31/01/2015):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (03/07/2017):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife (Dec 2018):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.0:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.5:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.6:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 1.7:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.0:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.3:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.4:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.5:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.6:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.7:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.8:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.9:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.10:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 2.11:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.3:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.4:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 3.5:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.3:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 4.4:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.3:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 5.4:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.3:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 6.4:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 7.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 7.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 7.3:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 8.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 8.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 9.1:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
IOC World Bird Names, version 9.2:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Morony, Bock and Farrand:
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
James Lee Peters:
Chlorophanes spiza [version 1]
James Lee Peters (original):
Chlorophanes spiza [version 1]
James Lee Peters (2nd edition):
Chlorophanes spiza [version 1]
Sibley and Monroe (1993):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Sibley and Monroe (1993, including corrections up to 1998):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Sibley and Monroe 2nd edition (1996):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (24/10/2003):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (14/09/2005):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (16/07/2006):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (26/09/2007):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (01/05/2008):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (30/09/2009):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (19/08/2010):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (8/08/2011):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (8/02/2012):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (4/09/2012):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (17/03/2013):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (9/02/2014):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (16/02/2015):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (28/07/2016):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (22/04/2017):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (4/06/2018):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
South American Classification Committee (6/06/2019):
Green Honeycreeper ( Chlorophanes spiza) [version 1]
Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource:
Chlorophanes spiza [version 1]
Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource:
Chlorophanes spiza [version 1]

Taxonomic status:

Species status: full species

Your sightings

You must be logged in to view your sighting details. To register to myAvibase click here.

Related taxa

Highlight taxa in a checklist (shown in red)

Other synonyms


Catalan: tàngara melera encaputxada
Czech: Kvetomil cernohlavý, květomil černohlavý
Danish: Sorthovedet Honningsuger
German: Kappennaschvogel, Kappen-Naschvogel
English: Black-crowned Honeycreeper, Green Honeycreeper
English (IOC): Green Honeycreeper
Spanish: Mielerito Verde, Mielero Verde
Spanish (Colombia): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Costa Rica): Mielero verde
Spanish (Ecuador): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Spain): Mielerito Verde
Spanish (HBW): Green Honeycreeper
Spanish (Honduras): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Mexico): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Nicaragua): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Panama): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Peru): Mielero Verde
Spanish (Venezuela): Mielero Verde, Milero Verde
Finnish: Turkoosimesitangara
French: Chlorophane émeraude, Guit-guit émeraude, Sucrier vert, Tangara émeraude
Guianese Creole French: Ti-vèr
Hungarian: zöld cukormadár
Italian: Clorofane verde, Mielero verde
Japanese: zuguromitsudori
Japanese: ズグロミツドリ
Scientific: Chlorophanes spiza, Chlorophanes spiza spiza, Motacilla Spiza
Lithuanian: Brazilinė tanagra
Dutch: Groene Suikervogel
Norwegian Nynorsk: Grønhonningkrypar
Norwegian: Grønnhonningkryper
Wayampi: Aisimoyu, Wilasimoyu
Palikúr: Ayewé
Polish: seledynek
Portuguese: Bico-doce, saí, saí-tucano, saí-verde, Sal-verde, Tem-tem
Portuguese (Brazil): bico-doce, saí, saí-tucano, sai-verde, Saí-verde, tem-tem
Portuguese (Portugal): Saí-verde
Russian: Зелёный саи
Slovak: temtem smaragdový
Serbian: Zeleni medni puzić
Sranan: Blaka-edepetpet, Grunedepetpet
Swedish: nektartangara, Svarthuvad honungssugare
Ukrainian: Саї великий
Wayana: Sulit, Tukuihek
Chinese: 绿旋蜜雀
Chinese (Traditional): 綠旋蜜雀

Avibase has been visited 288,555,076 times since 24 June 2003. © Denis Lepage | Privacy policy